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Bandwidth sets the amount of occupied spectrum by the modulation.It ranges from 7.8k Hz to 500k Hz with higher bandwidths increasing the data rate.Or the two modules can be time synchronized to allow two-way communication switching between receive and transmit modes of operation. The modulation parameters mentioned previously determine the signal's 'appearance' in the frequency spectrum and affect the transmission's potential range, its bit rate and interference resilience.They are spreading factor, modulation bandwidth and error coding rate.
Higher values slow down the data rate and increase range.Data is then represented by instantaneous changes in frequency between individual chirps.All of this including the whole demodulation and decoding process is brilliantly described in this presentation by Matt Knight.From the bottom up: the slowest Mode 0, then Mode 1, all the way to a very fast and quite faint Mode 9. Comparing Semtech's and Hope RF's datasheets, it seems that the modules simply use the Semtech's SX127x ICs while mainly providing the external filtering and impedance matching for a specific frequency band.I also designed simple adapter boards which now host my modules.