Information on radiocarbon dating
The INTCAL13 data includes separate curves for the northern and southern hemispheres, as they differ systematically because of the hemisphere effect; there is also a separate marine calibration curve.
Once testing has produced a sample age in radiocarbon years, with an associated error range of plus or minus one standard deviation (usually written as ±σ), the calibration curve can be used to derive a range of calendar ages for the sample.
Dendrochronology or the study of tree rings led to the first such sequence: tree rings from individual pieces of wood show characteristic sequences of rings that vary in thickness because of environmental factors such as the amount of rainfall in a given year.
These factors affect all trees in an area, so examining tree-ring sequences from old wood allows the identification of overlapping sequences.
There are separate graphs for the southern hemisphere and for calibration of marine data.
To produce a curve that can be used to relate calendar years to radiocarbon years, a sequence of securely dated samples is needed which can be tested to determine their radiocarbon age.
Archaeologists now have new tools for studying the development of medieval villages and the transformation of the historical landscapes surrounding them. Radiocarbon dating is a key tool archaeologists use to determine the age of plants and objects made with organic material.
The calibration curve itself has an associated error term, which can be seen on the graph labelled "Calibration error and measurement error".
This graph shows INTCAL13 data for the calendar years 3100 BP to 3500 BP.
However, the raw data were never released by the institutions. PERNAGALLO Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania CT, Italy and B.
In 2017, in response to a legal request, all raw data kept by the British Museum were made accessible. TORRISI Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania CT, Italy Fair Use Quote: A telling tidbit from page 6 of 9: The same rationale applies to the intra-laboratory differences.