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One of the Borobudur ships, 8th century depictions in Borobudur reliefs of large native outrigger trading vessels, possibly of the Sailendra and Srivijaya thalassocracies.

Shown with the characteristic tanja sail of Southeast Asian Austronesians.

Based in Canada with an international editorial board, it explores the maritime dimensions of economic, social, cultural, and environmental history.

For a broad overview, see the four-volume encyclopedia edited by John B.

Austronesians were the first humans to invent oceangoing sailing technologies, namely the catamaran, the outrigger ship, and the crab claw sail.

This allowed them to colonize a large part of the Indo-Pacific region from 3000 to 1500 BC during the Austronesian expansion.

This scaled down version of the instrument used by astronomers served as a navigational aid to measure latitude at sea, and was employed by Portuguese sailors no later than 1481.

Kuo was also the first to document the concept of true north to discern a compass' magnetic declination from the physical North Pole.

ABC-CLIO, 2002) with 1500 articles in 1231, pages, and I. Inland waterways are included within 'maritime history,' especially inland seas such as the Great Lakes of North America, and major navigable rivers and canals worldwide.

Historians from many lands have published monographs, popular and scholarly articles, and collections of archival resources.

A leading journal is International Journal of Maritime History, a fully refereed scholarly journal published twice a year by the International Maritime Economic History Association.

Maritime history is the broad overarching subject that includes fishing, whaling, international maritime law, naval history, the history of ships, ship design, shipbuilding, the history of navigation, the history of the various maritime-related sciences (oceanography, cartography, hydrography, etc.), sea exploration, maritime economics and trade, shipping, yachting, seaside resorts, the history of lighthouses and aids to navigation, maritime themes in literature, maritime themes in art, the social history of sailors and passengers and sea-related communities.

There are a number of approaches to the field, sometimes divided into two broad categories: Traditionalists, who seek to engage a small audience of other academics, and Utilitarians, who seek to influence policy makers and a wider audience.

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